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Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lactobacillales) are an order of diverse bacteria that play a vital role in food production and fermentation, probiotic products, and could even help with the administration of vaccines. From gut health to applications of CRISPR-Cas systems, this Thematic Issue of FEMS Microbiology Reviews presents a series of papers showcasing the cutting-edge research that is being conducted in this important and developing field.