Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters
The Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters was founded in 1838 with the aim of promoting high-quality research, scholarship, networking and dissemination of information through organized conferences and symposia, awarding prizes, providing financial support and stimulating trans-disciplinary discussion. Only the microbiologists from this wider academy are listed below.
Worldwide, infections are resuming their role as highly effective killing diseases, as current treatments are failing to respond to the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In this minireview, the impact of AMR in healthcare systems and the major bacteria behind it are highlighted. Ecological aspects of AMR evolution and the complexity of its molecular mechanisms are explained. Major concepts, such as intrinsic, acquired and adaptive resistance, as well as tolerance and heteroresistance, are also clarified. More importantly, the problematic of biofilms and their role in AMR, namely their main resistance and tolerance mechanisms, are elucidated. Finally, some of the most promising anti-biofilm strategies being investigated are reviewed.