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|Academy of Europe||Estonian Academy of Sciences||Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences||EMBO|
Viruses are recognized as important actors in ocean ecology and biogeochemical cycles, but many details are not yet understood. The authors of this paper participated in a winter expedition to the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, to isolate viruses and to measure virus-like particle abundance (flow cytometry) in sea ice. They isolated 59 bacterial strains and the first four Antarctic sea-ice viruses known (PANV1, PANV2, OANV1 and OANV2), which grow in bacterial hosts belonging to the typical sea-ice genera Paraglaciecola and Octadecabacter.